For example, says Carl Hart, Ph.D., crack cocaine does not create addiction in someone the very first time they use it. Pure crack cocaine and powdered cocaine are chemically identical, and create identical effects on users if the amounts and delivery methods are the same.
In fact, he says, the same is true for any substance – no drug causes addiction the first time it’s used. Even if someone wants to use it immediately a second time, it doesn’t mean they are addicted, he said.
Speaking at a recent TED Talk, Hart said that 80 to 90 percent of drug users never become addicted at all – including those who try cocaine. He reminded the audience that our last three presidents – Obama, Bush and Clinton – all used drugs when they were younger. “Their drug use did not result in an inevitable downward spiral leading to debauchery and addiction,” Hart said. “And the experience of these men is the rule, not the exception.”
From a societal perspective, Hart said he has had to learn that drugs and drug addiction are not the cause of crime, violence and gang activity in our inner cities. Raised in a minority, crime-ridden neighborhood of Miami, he was personally involved in drugs and petty crime as a youth. He was constantly told, and thoroughly believed, that drugs were at the source of all the ills in “the ‘hood”.
“I came from a community where drug use was prevalent,” Hart told the TED Talk audience. “I kept a gun in my car, I engaged in petty crime, I used and sold drugs. But I also stand before you today, emphasis on ‘also’, a professor at Columbia University, who studies drug addiction. And I know what some of you are wondering – ‘How in the world did you get from there to here?’”
Hart made it through high school, and credits his joining the Air Force with sparking his interest in higher education. He received a Bachelor of Science degree and a Master of Science degree from the University of Maryland, and earned his Ph.D. in Neuroscience from the University of Wyoming. Finding a solution to addiction became his mission. He says he chose neuroscience specifically so he could solve the addiction problems in his old neighborhood.
And after more than a decade of research, he has convinced himself and his co-workers that crime, violence and gangs are based on poverty and the lack of opportunities and positive choices. Crime and violence exist independently of drug abuse and addiction, he says.
Many common ideas about addiction are based on old animal research from the 1960s and 1970s, he said, which has not stood up to the test of time. For example, in old research, rodents in cages could access a lever that would give them a shot of cocaine. They immediately began self-administering the drug, and wouldn’t stop until they died. This was the “scientific” basis for everything known about cocaine abuse.
Those rodents were never offered an alternative, he said. So Hart’s team ran experiments in which the rodents were also offered sweets and sexually active mates as well as the drugs. The results were fascinating. They no longer drugged themselves to death and chose the non-drug alternatives. They favored the sweets and the sexual partnerships more than the drugs.
Encouraged, Hart’s team began similar tests on human subjects. Hardened addicts who agreed to take part in controlled lab experiments were offered a free hit of their drug of choice or a small sum of money – $5 in the first round of experiments and $20 in a subsequent round.
The results were surprising, to say the least. More than half of the participants chose the money over the drugs. The experiments showed over and over again that even a majority of hardened coke and meth addicts, not beginners by a long shot, were more interested in an alternative that meant more to them than just getting stoned again.
Modern science and better, more creative research has taught Hart that the drug addiction problems in America will never be improved unless new ideas are brought to the table. Hart proposed three basic steps to begin reducing drug addiction and crime in a meaningful way.
The first is ensuring that employment and better education are available to all. It will require a huge shift in drug policy, but “important, attractive and meaningful ‘reinforcers’ as alternatives to drug use and abuse” are essential, Hart said.
“My research shows that attractive alternatives can decrease drug use,” he said. “Providing viable economic opportunity will go a long way in decreasing drug abuse.”
The second is decriminalization of drug possession – treating it like a traffic violation, Hart said. Hart pointed to other countries, such as Portugal and the Czech Republic, where drug addiction and crime have been significantly reduced through these methods.
“Significant portions of their society are not stigmatized, marginalized and unfairly incarcerated. If our goal in the U.S. is to have a legal system that treats everyone fairly, one that’s just…we must decriminalize drug possession” and change “selectively enforced” drug laws. For example, racial profiling is rampant in drug enforcement here in the U.S., where 80 percent of cocaine users are white, but 80 percent of people in prison for cocaine possession are black.
“Third, I believe science should be driving our drug policy and drug education – even if it makes you and me uncomfortable. First we should be truthful about it.” He pointed to the massive media coverage of the recent rise in heroin abuse and overdose deaths in the country. The actual truth is that 75 percent of so-called heroin overdose deaths involved other sedative drugs, either alcohol or benzodiazapines.
“Rather than just vilifying heroin, the message should be, ‘If you’re going to use heroin, don’t combine it with another sedative!’”
People will always use drugs, Hart says. They always have used drugs. We must learn to live with this fact. Drugs will never be entirely eradicated no matter what approach is taken, and to think otherwise is naïve. Hart said that we already take this approach with other dangerous activities, such as sex, alcohol and even driving.
“I’ve come a long way since the mean streets of Miami, and even a longer way since the starry-eyed young man who wanted to eradicate drugs as the best way to deal with the drug problem. Today I no longer want to eradicate or eliminate drugs from our society. It would be naïve to think so.”
He added that he wants to “keep safe” the countless recreational drug users, the vast majority of drug users, who don’t have an addiction problem and who need the truth about drugs and who need real justice.
Hart closed his talk by saying he is dedicated to disseminating the real science about drugs and addiction to the public and he asked the audience to join him in these efforts. “What I know now is that drugs are not the problem. The real problems are poverty, unemployment, selective drug law enforcement, ignorance and the dismissal of science surrounding these drugs.”
Hart’s book, High Price: A Neuroscientist’s Journey of Self Discovery That Challenges Everything You Know About Drugs and Society, was published by Harper in June 2013. Called a “harrowing and inspiring memoir”, it won a PEN/E. O. Wilson Literary Science Writing Award.
At Novus, we also believe that ‘the drug problem’ can best be helped by applying proven advances in science and by sensible adjustments of social policies when needed. Here at Novus, we are dedicated to helping reverse the effects of addiction by using the most modern medical detox protocols available. We know what our role is, and we encourage anyone with a drug problem of any kind to call us any time. We are always here to help.
Common anxiety drugs such as Xanax, Valium, Ativan and Klonopin, and related insomnia drugs such as Ambien, Lunesta and Sonata, increase the chance of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias, says a new report from Canadian and French researchers.
The study, just published in the British Medical Journal, reports that using benzodiazepine anxiety drugs and the strongly similar “nonbenzodiazepine” insomnia drugs, often called “z-drugs”, is not only linked to higher rates of Alzheimer’s, but the longer you take it the greater the chances are of suffering from dementia.
Dr. Antoine Pariente, of the University of Bordeaux, France, a co-author of the study, told Paula Span of the New York Times that “the more the cumulative days of use, the higher the risk of later being diagnosed with dementia.”
The research also showed that the link between benzos and dementia is even stronger when it involves the longer-acting forms of the drug, like Valium, than the types of benzos that are eliminated from the body more quickly, such as Ativan and Xanax.
The study involved 1,800 older people diagnosed with Alzheimer’s in Quebec and compared them with nearly 7,200 control subjects. There was an overall 51 percent higher risk of Alzheimer’s for those who had taken benzodiazepines.
The risk of dementia rose 32 percent for older patients who took daily doses for 91 to 180 days, compared to those who took none. For those who took daily doses for more than 180 days, the risk was 84 percent higher, the Times reported. And, Dr. Pariente said, it didn’t matter whether the 180 doses were taken daily over six months, or spread out over five years, the results were the same.
According to the Times’ Paula Span, a seasoned reporter with extensive experience reporting on disease and treatment of the elderly, the study by researchers at the University of Bordeaux and University of Montreal was “designed with particular care” to ensure that statistical and procedural objections that could be expected for such a study were carefully considered and answered, and that their findings were still valid.
These drugs cause Alzheimer’s, the study says, and the more you take them, and the longer you take them, the greater the risk.
What are benzodiazepines?
Benzodiazepines (Xanax, Valium etc.) and the “non-benzodiazapine hypnotics” such as Ambien and Lunesta, nicknamed the “z-drugs” because they’re for sleep, work very much the same way in the brain. In fact, they’re so similar that some scientists don’t bother to distinguish between the two and just call them all “benzodiazepines.”
This broad class of drugs is used for one or more of their anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), sedative, hypnotic (sleep-inducing), anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant properties, while others are used to cause amnesia and even general dissociation – a detachment from physical and emotional experience.
The reasons the researchers wanted to do this study are:
- Dementia is currently the main cause of dependency in older people and a major public health concern affecting about 36 million people worldwide.
- Because of population growth, this number is expected to double every 20 years and to reach 115 million in 2050, resulting in tragic human consequences and social costs.
- Since the cause is unknown and there are no effective treatments, the search for the cause and for effective treatment is a high priority.
- Several studies have already shown that benzodiazepines could be one of the causes.
- This class of drugs is mainly used to treat anxiety or insomnia and their use among elderly patients is consistently high in developed countries – as high 43 percent.
- International guidelines recommend short term use of benzodiazepines, mainly because of withdrawal symptoms, but these guidelines are not always followed.
- Finally, although the long term effectiveness of benzos remains unproven for insomnia and is questionable for anxiety, their use is “predominantly chronic” in older people.
As we can see, these drugs have a huge effect on the functioning of the human mind and body. Now they’re being shown to have seriously negative long-term effects. The study authors say that “unwarranted long term use of these drugs should be considered as a public health concern.”
A public health concern? That’s quite a limb for these scientists to climb out on. But they know that, and they’re putting their reputations on the line because of the seriousness of their findings.
It’s only a matter of time until the drug companies involved come calling on the medical journals with other studies aimed at nullifying the critical study. Studies such as this one not only crash sales – almost every one of these brand-name benzos is a billion-dollar money-maker – they usually lead to massively expensive class action lawsuits.
Lawsuits over negative drug side effects have become a common occurrence in America and to some extent overseas. Sometimes the problems arise because most drugs are tested to learn what a “safe” dose is, but the “safe” dose isn’t tested over a long-enough period of time to reveal the dangers. And that seems to be the case with the benzodiazepines.
Here at Novus, we’ve helped a lot of people deal with benzodiazapine dependence. But this new information adds another dimension to the motivation for getting off benzos for good.
If you have a problem with benzodiazapine dependence, or know someone who does, please call Novus today. We can help, it’s what we do.
If you’re taking a prescription opioid painkiller or using heroin or any other illicit opioid, you might want to think twice before also taking a benzodiazapine tranquilizer like Xanax or Valium along with your opioid.
Combining benzodiazapines with opioids has become more and more popular with opioid users in recent years. Day after day we read in the news about drug busts, emergency hospital admissions and overdose deaths in which opioids and benzos have been combined. Oxycodone or hydrocodone with Xanax seems to be a very popular mix.
It’s been well known for years that combining opioids with benzos is a dicey idea because it increases the risk of suppressing the central nervous system to dangerously low levels.
But a new study from the Centers For Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) not only confirms that the practice is increasing, it clearly shows that opioid-benzodiazapine combinations increase the risk of death – and by a fairly wide margin.
Benzodiazepines were involved in nearly a third – 31 percent – of all prescription opioid painkiller deaths in 2011, and only 13 percent in 1999. You can see the significant increase of opioids-plus-benzodiazapine deaths on the green line in the graph.
‘Death rate’ – what it means and why it’s an important statistic
Statistics people always measure what’s called the ‘death rate’ – the number of people dying from some cause from year to year based on the changing US population. They do this to see if the numbers are getting worse or getting better. It’s different from just the total number of people dying, which could easily be increasing just because the population is increasing.
The new CDC study compared how many Americans died from prescription painkillers per 100,000 population each year from 1999 to 2011. The results were stunning. The death rate quadrupled, from 1.4 deaths per 100,000 population, to 5.4 per 100,000 population. The death rate slowed a little bit after 2006, which is good news. But it still increased year over year.
What was even more disturbing, however, was the increase in the death rate from mixing benzos with opioids. This death rate nearly tripled from 1999 to 2011, while the death rate from opioids alone remained the same (number of deaths per 100,000 people).
In other words, not only is the total number of Americans dying from prescription painkillers and benzos higher than ever before, the rate of deaths from that cause is soaring.
Mixing benzos with prescription opioid painkillers is not only a soaring statistic, it clearly poses an additional threat to drug users and abusers who aren’t getting the message, who aren’t paying attention to what’s happening around them.
Keep in mind that victims include lots of “weekend” or occasional users and abusers – not just hard-core addicts.
Over 30 Americans die needlessly every day of the year – nearly 12,000 in 2011 alone – by overdosing on what are called ‘natural and semi-synthetic opioid analgesics’. These include such opioid painkillers as hydrocodone, oxycodone, morphine, methadone, codeine and others. This tragic statistic is quadruple the 2,700 deaths in 1999.
So what’s the bottom line for all these numbers?
To sum it all up, the total number of deaths from use and abuse of prescription drugs has quadrupled since 1999, while opioids combined with benzos total deaths has also quadrupled.
Also, the death rate has tripled for opioid-benzos combined, while it remained the same for opioids alone. That tells us that the combination is a definite and serious risk and should be avoided.
Here at Novus, we believe even one death is too many. That’s why we’re dedicated to helping our patients climb off the slippery slope of dependence and addiction and get started on a smooth new road to recovery – a life free from substance use and abuse, forever.
We are experts at detoxifying our patients from multiple drugs, too. If you or someone you care about is in trouble with prescription drugs, either alone or in combination such as opioids and benzodiazapines, don’t hesitate to give us a call. We are here to help, and we can help.
Christina Huffington was only 16 when she did her first line of cocaine. In almost no time, it seemed, she was buying and snorting the drug regularly, and the drug abuse followed her from high school through most of her college years.
The daughter of media mogul Arianna Huffington, creator and publisher of on-line news megasite Huffington Post, and former Republican congressman Michael Huffington, Christina spent 7 years in an off-and-on battle with alcohol abuse and cocaine addiction.
Now 25 years old and recovered, the younger Huffington went public last year in Huffington Post, Glamour magazine and NBC’s Today Show, about her cocaine addiction. She said she hopes her story will help others avoid or recover from substance abuse and addiction.
As part of her message, Christina was one of a panel of presenters at the White House on Wednesday, September 17, at an event marking the 25th Anniversary of National Recovery Month (formerly National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month) which is celebrated every September.
The White House event, Titled “Recovery at the White House: Celebrating 25 years” and sponsored by the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), was streamed live on the internet. It was one of dozens of events held across the country to celebrate the anniversary, and it can be seen on the official White House YouTube channel.
As well as Christina Huffington, the White House panel included NFL Hall of Famer Cris Carter, now an ESPN announcer and in recovery himself; former Washington Post reporter Ruben Castaneda, author of a book about his own journey to recovery titled S Street Rising; and Mayor of Brooklyn Center, Minnesota, Tim Willson.
Recovery Month is a federal program administered by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). It promotes the benefits of prevention, treatment and recovery for substance abuse through public events and media promotion across the country, and “celebrates people in recovery, lauds the contributions of treatment and service providers, and promotes the message that recovery in all its forms is possible. Recovery Month spreads the positive message that behavioral health is essential to overall health, that prevention works, treatment is effective and people can and do recover.”
ONDCP Deputy Director David Mineta introduced the White House event, and reminded the audience that “addiction can impact individuals and families from all walks of life and has no ethnic, racial, gender, linguistic or socioeconomic boundaries. It can take hold of persons at any age, any profession, any station in life. Fortunately, and thankfully, recovery crosses all of these as well. Recovery is a reality for millions of people in the United States and abroad.”
Recovery Month was created in 1989 as National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month. The name was changed to National Recovery Month after SAMHSA was created by Congress in 1992, which added mental health to the substance abuse context. SAMHSA’s mandate, according to their website, is to help improve access to clinically sound, cost-effective mental and substance use disorders because “inadequate capacity, limited public and private health insurance benefits and discrimination have contributed to the gap between the number of people who need treatment and the number who receive it.”
This year’s theme, “Join the Voices for Recovery: Speak Up, Reach Out”, hopes to encourage people to “openly speak up about substance abuse disorders and the reality of recovery.” The Recovery Month website is a good place to find out how to recognize issues involving substance abuse and get useful info about how to find help.
One of the many Recovery Month partners across the country is the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (NCADD) in New York. According to the NCADD website, local NCADD Affiliates across the country “hold hundreds of local community events in celebration of recovery month including events at baseball games, picnics, rallies, walks, luncheons and dinners.”
Here at Novus, we’re fully behind any program that forwards the message that recovery is not just possible, but a proven certainty for millions of people around the world. When modern medical detox protocols such as those pioneered here at Novus are correctly applied, and then followed when indicated with a suitably lengthy rehabilitation program, recovery from drugs and alcohol moves far above the level of a hopeful wish. In fact, done right, modern treatment moves recovery closer to certainty.
If you or someone you care for is suffering from substance abuse, dependence or addiction of any kind, don’t hesitate to call us here at Novus and get all your questions about detox fully answered. And if Novus doesn’t sound right for you, we’ll help you find a facility that fits your needs and expectations.
After more than 10 years of hemming and hawing, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) has finally lowered the boom on prescription painkillers containing hydrocodone. It’s about time, since hydrocodone is among the top killer drugs in America.
The new ruling, which comes into effect the first week of October, 2014, moves a long list of painkillers such as Vicodin and Lortab from schedule III to schedule II, placing them in the same category as codeine and oxycodone. DEA says the long-awaited move is a response to the epidemic of prescription opioid overdose deaths across the country.
“Almost seven million Americans abuse controlled-substance prescription medications, including opioid painkillers, resulting in more deaths from prescription drug overdoses than auto accidents,” said DEA Administrator Michele Leonhart. “Today’s action recognizes that these products are some of the most addictive and potentially dangerous prescription medications available.”
What this means is that patients can only get prescriptions for 3 months tops, after which they must see the doctor for a renewal. In many states, only a physician will be able to write such a prescription, excluding the various categories of medical assistants, technicians, nurse practitioners and so on.
Drug schedules run from I down to V. Schedules II down to V must all have accepted medical uses. Schedule II is the highest potential for harm and abuse, with Schedules III, IV and V having progressively less potential for harm and abuse. Schedule I are controlled substances with no accepted medical use and no accepted procedures for safe use.
Hydrocodone Containing Products (HCPs) usually are hydrocodone in combination with such drugs as acetaminophen, ibuprophen or aspirin. When Congress passed the Controlled Substances Act in 1970, HCPs were listed as Schedule III, but hydrocodone by itself was placed in Schedule II, the class reserved for drugs with a higher potential for abuse than SIII.
Over the past decade, prescription drug abuse overtook abuse of illicit street drugs. There’s been no shortage of evidence that the rampant increase in abuse of HCPs has led to thousands of dependencies, abuses, addictions and fatal overdoses.
To its credit, the DEA has been calling for a shift to Schedule II for HCPs for all that time. Surveys from multiple federal and nonfederal agencies, says the DEA, have clearly shown that HCPs indeed have “a high potential for abuse and abuse may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.” The DEA pointed to federal Monitoring the Future surveys of 8th, 10th, and 12th graders, which showed twice as many high school seniors used the Schedule III HCP Vicodin non-medically as used the more tightly controlled Schedule II drug oxycodone and its popular delayed-release version, OxyContin.
Obviously, for those 10 years, other forces have been at work blocking the DEA’s attempts to tighten controls. Although they cite medical and financial concerns – tighter controls would make it more difficult for patients to get the pain relief they need and it would be more expensive – no credible study supports the argument.
Here in Florida, the damage done by prescription painkillers containing hydrocodone is no secret and no surprise. According to the state’s 2013 Medical Examiners Commission Interim Drug Report, hydrocodone is one of the top half-dozen killer drugs in the state. Deaths from hydrocodone increased 30 percent in the first 6 months of last year over the last 6 months of the year before.
But hydrocodone isn’t the state’s top killer – that’s a distinction reserved for the whole class of drugs called benzodiazapines, with alprazolam (Xanax) and diazepam (Valium) taking the top honors. Almost always, benzodiazapines are found in combination with other drugs, more often than not alcohol.
But any way you look at it, the picture in Florida is a grim reminder of the deadly grip prescription drugs have on the nation. In Florida, prescription drugs represent 78 percent of all overdoses in the state, outpacing illicit drugs like heroin and cocaine. After the benzodiazapines, the drugs that caused the most deaths were alcohol, cocaine, oxycodone, morphine, methadone and hydrocodone.
Hydrocodone is a ‘semi-synthetic’ opioid, meaning it is part natural and part man-made with chemicals from other sources. The natural part originally came from codeine, but most is made today from thebaine, another, much more toxic derivative of codeine. Codeine is a natural derivative of morphine, which in turn comes from opium, which is made from the sap extracted from the green seed pods of a flowering plant called the opium poppy.
The synthetic part simply means that some chemists started with a natural opioid and then tinkered with it in a lab to create the chemical properties of what is now called hydrocodone. And like almost all the opioid/opiates in our prescription painkillers, it originated in pre-WWII Germany in the 1920s and ‘30s.
Another interesting thing about hydrocodone is that it is not just used as a painkiller, but also as an antitussive – that is, a cough medicine, often in combination with acetaminophen or ibuprofen.
Maybe the most interesting thing about hydrocodone is that it’s prescribed predominantly in the United States and is rare everywhere else. The International Narcotics Control Board says 99 percent of the world supply is consumed here in the States.
And yet another interesting aspect of hydrocodone was the recent approval by the FDA of a new hydrocodone formulation, called Zohydro ER (for Extended Release). The FDA approved it over the objections of its own review panel, which said that if it was approved, it would likely “be abused, possibly at a rate greater than that of currently available hydrocodone combination products” such as Vicodin and all the others. At least 30 states asked the FDA not to approve it, some saying they would ban its sale in their jurisdictions. But after a federal judge overturned Massachusetts’ attempt to do so, citing that federal approval trumped state law, the states were forced to accept it.
The bottom line, of course is that the shift to Schedule II for hydrocodone containing products may mean very little in terms of dependencies, addictions and deaths. All one has to look at is the number of fatalities from oxycodone – triple or quadruple that of hydrocodone – and oxycodone containing products are and always have been in Schedule II.
Really, the only good news in all this is the fact that Novus Medical Detox Center has the answer for anyone in trouble with hydrocodone or any prescription or non-prescription opioid. Our medical opioid detox protocols offer the safest and most comfortable detox possible anywhere. Don’t hesitate to call Novus any time and get all your questions answered about opioid detox, or detox from any substance.
In an age when drugs are so easily available, from grade school to college and beyond, parents need to do everything they can to keep their kids safe.
A completely revised and updated edition of How to Raise a Drug-Free Kid – The Straight Dope For Parents, will be released in September 2014. The acclaimed guide, for moms and dads from all walks of life, addresses that “dangerous decade” from 10 to 21, the formative pre-teen, teen, and college years when the decisions kids make about substance use and abuse are most important.
The author is Joseph A. Califano Jr., founder and former Chairman of Board of the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASAColumbia), who brings both his 20-plus years of experience in the field of substance abuse, and experience as a father who raised five children of his own through the drug-infused ‘60s and beyond.
Substance-related accidents, dependence, addiction, and needless, tragic deaths from drug and alcohol overdoses among America’s young people have reached levels never even imagined only a decade ago. Parents have never needed workable advice more than they do now.
The publisher’s blurb says, “Nearly every child will be offered drugs or alcohol before graduating high school. The good news is that a child who gets to age 21 without smoking, using illegal drugs, or abusing alcohol is virtually certain never to do so…and kids who learn about drugs from their parents are much likelier to resist these temptations.”
On the flip side, statistics show that the vast majority of adult substance abusers used drugs and alcohol as teens, or even pre-teens. The data strongly suggests that avoidance of addictive substances until adulthood is powerful insurance against becoming dependent or addicted as an adult.
Teenagers who learn about the risks of drugs from their parents, Califano says, are twice as likely never to try them. And parents are the best, most positive influences in such decision-making, even with teenaged kids. Califano shows parents how to exercise what he called “Parent Power” to connect with their kids to tell them about the temptations, effects and dangers of nicotine, alcohol, prescription drugs and illicit drugs.
Califano explains how to spot and take advantage of those brief opportunities to get into communication with your kids. He also explains which actions work and which ones don’t, and advises parents to avoid setting the worst possible example – drinking and using drugs in front of your kids. He draws on interactions with thousands of parents and answers all the questions he received at his speaking engagements across the country, such as:
- When and how should I talk to my child about drugs and alcohol?
- Under what circumstances is my child most at risk?
- How to respond when your kid asks, “Did you do drugs?”
- How do binge drinking and marijuana use threaten the development of my teen’s brain?
- How can I help my child handle the glamorization of drinking and drug use on social media, music, television, and the internet?
- How do I help my child deal with the rampant drinking and drug use perils on college campuses?
Califano is the former U.S. Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare under the Carter administration. Before that, he served in numerous senior government positions for the Department of Defense during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations, and became Special Assistant to President Lyndon Johnson, serving as LBJ’s top domestic aide until the end of Johnson’s term. He has been Adjunct Professor of Public Health (Health Policy and Management) at Columbia University Medical School (Department of Psychiatry) and School of Public Health and is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences.
‘Judge Judy’ Sheindlin says of the book: “This should be required reading for every parent of a child. Addiction has claimed the children of too many. Having the information and maintaining parental vigilance is a great start. The tools are found between the covers of this well-crafted book.”
Jamie Lee Curtis, mother, actress, and author of children’s books, also gives it a good review: “This wonderful book will help you answer some tough questions and give you a roadmap for tackling one of the hardest tasks as a parent.”
And there’s a terrific review from Library Journal: “The author seems to peer under every rock and pebble to help parents understand which kids are most at risk, when the risks are highest, how to combat the issue, and more. From specific information about individual drugs to how to recognize abuse and seek treatment, this title is the ‘Bible’ on kids and substance abuse.”
Here at Novus we strive to help our patients recover their lives, free from dependence on drugs and alcohol. And we’re thrilled when they talk about the positive effects that their sobriety will have with their families, especially when there are kids involved.
If you or someone you know has a problem with substance abuse, don’t hesitate to call. We’re always here and ready to help.
Medical scientists in Boston say early exposure to opioids like methadone, heroin, Subutex and opioid prescription painkillers may lead to permanent genetic changes in some infants, and that these changes could increase babies’ sensitivity to addictive substances later in their lifetimes.
It’s already well known that using opioids while pregnant causes Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) – “cold turkey” withdrawal symptoms – in the newborn infant.
And it’s also well known that some infants have a much worse time of this horrible experience than others.
Scientists have theorized for some time that drug-related genetic changes in the mother or baby may explain why symptoms are more severe in some babies than in others. Now, researchers at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) and Boston Medical Center (BMC) have completed a study that appears to confirm the theory. But it also suggests an even more important theory – inherited genetic potential for addiction.
First of all, it’s known that in opioid users, changes occur to a specific gene called the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1). Opioid receptors are the targets for opioids in the nervous system, and the OPRM1 gene is considered essential for opioid dependency in adults. The OPRM1 gene also plays an important role in dependence to other drugs of abuse, such as nicotine, cocaine and alcohol.
When opioids or alcohol hit the receptor, the receptor triggers the release of beta-endorphins, which in turn releases dopamine. This is the body’s “feel-good” reward system. The final result is more craving for the drug or alcohol, opening the door to dependence and addiction.
For the study, the researchers examined genetic data from 86 infants whose mothers had taken opioids while pregnant. As expected, some of the infants suffered far worse NAS withdrawal symptoms than the others. Their suffering not only was more intense, the babies also needed more medication than the others and their withdrawal lasted longer.
When the babies’ genetic information was compared, it was found that the infants who suffered severe NAS withdrawal symptoms had high levels of what’s called “DNA methylation” in their bodies. This told the researchers that the OPRM1 gene in those babies had been “silenced” or shut off – the typical effects of dependence. Such changes are also caused by external forces – called “epigenetic” changes – and they’re usually permanent.
What appears to be most interesting to the researchers is the distinct possibility that the change in the infant’s OPRM1 gene was inherited from the mother’s DNA at conception – she passed on the effects of her own opioid abuse to the baby, who was then born with the genetic mutation typical of an opioid, alcohol or cocaine addict.
“What makes these results so intriguing is that these epigenetic* changes could be passed on from mother to child, resulting in these children potentially having future issues and sensitivities around opioid and other addictive substances,” said Elisha Wachman, MD, a staff neonatologist at BMC and assistant professor of pediatrics at BUSM.
This is certainly food for thought for women who use and abuse addictive substances such as opioids. It’s bad enough to think you’ve caused your baby days of extreme discomfort. But it’s quite another thing to realize that your substance abuse might make your child more prone to substance abuse later in his or her life.
Here at Novus Medical Detox Center, we don’t treat pregnant women or babies. This is purely the job of expert neonatologists – specialist pediatricians who care for premature newborns or those with serious illness, including NAS.
What we try to do is to encourage women of child-bearing age to be extra careful to avoid pregnancy while they’re using or abusing any addictive substances. But even more important, we urge them to seek help to get and remain sober.
If you’re dependent or addicted to opioids and could possibly become pregnant, we ask that you make the all-important decision to get here to Novus for a medically supervised detox before you become pregnant. We are experts at providing safer, more comfortable opioid withdrawal for people who want to recover drug-free lives.
* processes by which inheritable modifications in gene function occur without a change in the sequence of the DNA
If you have teenagers in the house, or pre-teens who are on their way to adolescence, this blog is for you. And if you have teens in trouble with substance abuse, or know of any who are, keep reading, because you’re already involved.
Addiction experts and social scientists at Columbia University have reported that substance use and abuse by America’s teenagers should not be taken lightly. Rather than treating it as a harmless phase that all teens go through, it should be at the top of our list of adverse social situations.
The massive, 420-page report from the University’s National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASAColumbia), says it all by its title: Adolescent Substance Use: America’s #1 Public Health Problem. Smoking, drinking, using illegal drugs and misusing prescription drugs “is by any measure a public health problem of epidemic proportion, presenting clear and present danger to millions of America’s teenagers and severe and expensive long-range consequences for our entire population,” the scientists said. Ignoring or minimizing the problem not only adds to the soaring medical costs of substance use and addiction, it puts the future of America at risk, both socially and economically.
The report details the messages that pervade American culture that promote teen substance abuse, and then it examines the results:
- Widespread impairment of physical and mental health among millions of teenagers because of risky substance abuse
- Countless injuries, suicides, homicides and other fatalities related to substance use
- Risky driving, risky sex, and drug-related violence and crime
- The tragic losses of educational and life opportunities for tens of thousands of substance injured and addicted young people
- The terrible impact on families of the loss of sons and daughters to addiction
- The immeasurably negative loss to America’s vital work force
Adolescent substance use is also responsible for “the largest preventable and most costly public health problem in America today” says CASAColumbia. Teen substance abuse itself is costly, but research has shown that almost all adult substance abuse and addiction begins in adolescence:
- Annual costs directly stemming from teen substance use include $68 billion for underage drinking and $14.4 billion for substance-related juvenile justice programs.
- Annual costs to federal, state and local governments for all abuse and addiction are at least $468 billion a year – roughly $1,500 for every single person in America every year – and most of the problems originated in adolescence.
This comprehensive report drew from sources all across the country, including:
- National surveys of 1,000 high school students, 1,000 parents of high school students and 500 school personnel (including teachers, principals, counselors and coaches)
- Analyses of 7 national data sets
- Interviews with approximately 50 leading experts in a broad range of fields related to this report
- 5 focus groups with students, parents and school personnel
- A review of more than 2,000 publications
CASAColumbia say that educators, health professionals and parents need to become more aware of the seriousness of the situation. Everyone needs to learn how to identify at-risk teens, while the health care system needs to provide more and better treatment for kids already in trouble with substance use and abuse. The report is aimed at everyone who has a stake in our future, and is in a position to do something about it:
- Health Care Professionals
- Educators and Community Organizations
The report has a comprehensive list of recommendations for each category of involvement. If you’re in this list, you’re involved. You can download your own copy of the report here.
Here at Novus, we couldn’t agree more with the CASAColumbia recommendations. Novus isn’t an adolescent treatment center, but we do deal with dependence and addiction on a daily basis. And it’s vital to understand that so many adult patients can trace the beginnings of their substance use problems back to their teenage years.
Picture credit: CASAColumbia
Researchers from Wayne State University and Indiana University compared the effects of both types of approach, using volunteers who were both substance dependent and non-substance dependent. The results, published in the journal Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, clearly showed that substance-dependent people respond more rationally to positive persuasion to avoid risky decisions than they do to negatively framed messages.
The researchers tested both groups of volunteers using the Iowa Gambling Task, which measures the ability to resist making unusually risky decisions while playing a card game.
When the risks involved were posed to the substance-dependent participants in negative terms, their ability to make rational decisions and control risky behavior was markedly reduced. But when positive persuasion was used that emphasized the benefits of avoiding risky decisions, the dependent group made obviously more rational decisions to control risky behavior.
Meanwhile, the non-dependent volunteers made rational, less risky decisions regardless of whether the messages were framed positive or negatively.
To back it all up with physical science, MRI brain scans were taken during the experiments of the areas of the brain which are normally active when people are consciously deciding to limit irrational or impulsive behavior.
When negative persuasion was used, the scans of the dependent individuals revealed a marked reduction of activity, which matched the actual risky decisions the participants were making. But with the positive persuasion, their scans showed normal, rational activity, right while they were making sensible, more rational decisions.
Again, supporting the actual decisions taken during the ‘game,’ the non-dependent group’s brain scans showed completely normal activity whether the messages were couched in positive or negative terms.
Given the life-style that most substance-dependent and addicted people have to endure just to survive, it makes sense that they’re plenty familiar already with all the negative stuff about their addiction – heck, they’re living it every day. And they’ve developed an efficient survival system of their own to deal with all the bad decisions they know they’re making.
Like the airbag in your car, this system is always poised and ready to instantly deploy and absorb any incoming negative energy. Every time you hammer away at them about how bad and wrong they are, how risky and dangerous and harmful their decisions are, how sad and terrible they‘re making everyone else feel – POW! That mental airbag pops open and shields them from the negativity. They’ll say, do or promise anything, and appear any way they think you want them to appear. But it’s just air – it’s the airbag talking, trying to avoid more incoming negativity.
This research proves what the successful addiction treatment experts have been saying for a long time: to persuade someone who’s dependent on drugs or alcohol to stop taking risks with their life, it’s better to be up-beat and positive about the benefits of sobriety. Stressing all the bad things about dependence and addiction just drives the addict further down.
Addicted people are still people, nevertheless. They need to be treated with the same respect and care you’d give anyone – especially someone in trouble. They need to see a hand reaching out to help, not raised to hit. Like everyone else in the world, addicts respond to positive messages; it’s the negative ones they’ve learned, the hard way, not to deal with.
Here at Novus, we don’t just treat substance dependence and then send people on their way. We treat people, helping them find the positive in their lives and eliminate the negative, under their own control. And we often make lifelong friends, too. Don’t hesitate to call Novus if you or someone you love has an addiction problem. We’re always here to help.
Suboxone is one of the pharmaceutical industry’s “blockbuster” drugs that most of America has never heard of. Suboxone has been making $billions ($1.7 billion last year alone) for its maker, Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals of the U.K. Even though it makes more money than Viagra and Adderall, it’s virtually unknown to the general public.
But Suboxone is the trade name for a compound of two generic drugs, buprenorphine and naloxone. These drugs are also money makers in the drug industry. Another brand, Subutex, is just buprenorphine by itself. And if you were to ask around about buprenorphine and naloxone, you’d probably get that same blank, questioning stare from most people.
So why haven’t most Americans heard about Suboxone? Or buprenorphine or naloxone for that matter? And why should we want know about these drugs anyway?
The first question is easy. We haven’t heard about them because they’re used mostly in the specialized treatment of opioid addiction. Buprenorphine was approved by the FDA in 2002 to treat opioid addiction. Buprenorphine is an opioid, but its narcotic and euphoric effects are less than heroin or opioid painkillers. Like methadone, it is prescribed to prevent withdrawal symptoms, while the addict comes off the stronger drug and works towards recovery.
That’s why buprenorphine and naloxone and compounds of the two like Suboxone are well known to addicts. And they’re an integral part of daily life for the addiction treatment community, as well as for law enforcement. If you’re not an opioid addict, or a treatment specialist, or in law enforcement, chances are you won’t hear about them.
Why should we care about these drugs?
The second question, however, is more important: Why should we want to know about them?
That answer is of deadly importance. Suboxone and buprenorphine on its own are being widely abused. Buprenorphine has become a serious player in the illicit narcotic drug underworld. According to the DEA’s national drug testing labs, buprenorphine is in the top three or four most-reported prescription narcotics confiscated by law enforcement across the country. (This includes combination drugs like Suboxone.)
In the Northeastern United States, where oxycodone and OxyContin are miles ahead of all the others, buprenorphine is number two – even ahead of hydrocodone (the biggest killer here in Florida). In the South, buprenorphine is number three and in the Midwest and West it’s number four.
A recent article in the New York Times told the story about a 38-year-old carpenter and rock musician who credits buprenorphine (Suboxone) with his recovery from opioid addiction and an attempted suicide. But the article also detailed the overdose death of a 20-year-old who tried buprenorphine with some friends one night, fell asleep, and never woke up. The young man who provided the buprenorphine is serving a 71-month sentence in a federal prison.
Another article, this one in Louisville’s The Courier-Journal, says prescriptions for Suboxone and its generic equivalents have soared 63 percent in Kentucky in the past year. The problem is that a huge number of those prescriptions are being diverted to the streets. “Suboxone abuse is huge,” a treatment official told the paper.
It’s a similar story across the country. That’s why everyone needs to know more about these drugs. If we see a Suboxone package or buprenorphine bottle where it shouldn’t be – that is, not in a treatment setting – we’ll know to take a closer look at what’s going on with that family member or friend. Suboxone and buprenorphine are not safe drugs to play around with. Not just weekend drug dabblers, but even serious opiate addicts are suffering from Suboxone and buprenorphine abuse.
Naloxone is important because it saves lives
Naloxone, the other Suboxone component, saves lives every day. It interrupts the deadly effects of an opioid overdose, like bringing the dead back to life. It’s in all hospital ERs, it’s carried by emergency responders, and in some cities and states, it’s available to the public.
If there’s an opioid addict or abuser in your family, you must know that the risk of opioid overdose is ever-present. Having a naloxone applicator or syringe handy could save that person’s life.
But an even better idea is to get that friend or family member into recovery before any overdose occurs. Why risk a life when you don’t have to? And if you or someone you love is already in trouble with Suboxone or buprenorphine, Novus is the place to call, because we are experts in handling buprenorphine and suboxone withdrawal and detox.
Call Novus today. We’re here to help.